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Gravity Probe B

Testing Einstein's Universe

Further Reading—Learn More About Spacetime & General Relativity

General References on Spacetime & Gravity

Introductory Books

  • Donald Goldsmith and Marcia Bartusiak, E = Einstein: His Life, His Thought, and His Influence on Our Culture. (New York: Sterling Publishing Company, 2007)
  • Brian Greene, The Fabric of the Cosmos. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004)
  • Steven Hawking, A Briefer History of Time . (New York: Bantam Books, 2005)
  • Steven Hawking, The Illustrated Brief History of Time. (New York: Bantam Books, 1996, 1988).
  • Steven Hawking, The Universe in a Nutshell. (New York: Bantam Books, 2001)
  • Stephen Hawking, Kip Thorne, Igor Novikov, Timothy Ferris & Alan Lightman, The Future of Spacetime—A collection of essays. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Copyright © 2002 by California Institute of Technology)

Intermediate Books

  • Ronald Adler, Gravity (Section I, Chapter 2 in The New Physics for the Twenty-First Century, Gordon Fraser (ed), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006)
  • James B. Hartle, Gravity: An Introduction to Einstein's General Relativity (San Francisco: Addison Wesley, 2003)
  • Bernard Schutz, Gravity from the Ground Up (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
  • John Archibald Wheeler, A Journey into Gravity and Spacetime. (New York: Scientific American Library, 1990, 1999)

Web Sites

Before Einstein

Introductory Books

  • H.G. Alexander (ed.), The Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence (Manchester University Press, 1956)
  • Julian Barbour, The Discovery of Dynamics (Oxford University Press, 1989)
  • Milic Capek, The Concepts of Space and Time (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1976)
  • David Hahm (ed), The Origins of Stoic Cosmology (Ohio State University Press, 1977)
  • Max Jammer, Concepts of Space: The History of Theories of Space in Physics (New York: Dover, 1954)

Intermediate Books

  • Julian Barbour and Herbert Pfister (eds), Mach's Principle: From Newton's Bucket to Quantum Gravity (Boston: Birkhauser, 1995)

Einstein's Spacetime

Introductory Books

  • Marcia Bartusiak. Einstein's Unfinished Symphony—Listening to the Sounds of Space-Time. (New York, Berkley Books, 2000)
  • Albert Einstein. Relativity, The Special and General Theory. (First Edition, New York, Henry Holt, 1920—many subsequent editions)
  • Michio Kaku. Einstein's Cosmos. (New York, W.W. Norton, 2004)

Intermediate Books & Articles

  • Abraham Pais. 'Subtle is the Lord...' The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1982)
  • Julian Schwinger. Einstein's Legacy—The Unity of Space and Time. (First Edition, New York, Scientific American Press, 1986. Reprinted by Dover Press, New York, 2002)
  • Clifford Will. "Special Relativity: A Centenary Perspective," Einstein, 1905-2005: Poincare Seminar 2005, ed. T. Damour, O. Darrigol, B. Duplantier and V. Rivasseau (Birkhauser, Basel 2006), pp. 33-58.

Testing Einstein

Introductory Book

  • Clifford Will. Was Einstein Right? Putting General Relativity to the Test (New York: Basic Books, 1986, 1993)

Intermediate Book & Article

  • Hans Ohanion and Remo Ruffini, Gravitation and Spacetime (New York: W.W. Norton, 1994)
  • Clifford Will, "Relativity at the centenary," Physics World, January 2005, p. 27-32

Advanced Books & Articles

  • Ronald Adler et al., Introduction to General Relativity (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965)
  • Clifford Will, Theory and Experiment in Gravitational Physics, Revised Edition (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993)
  • Clifford Will, "The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment," Living Reviews in Relativity (2006) 3 

Spacetime & Spin

Introductory Books

  • Francis Everitt, "The Stanford Relativity Gyroscope Experiment (A): History and Overview," in J.D. Fairbank et al. (eds), Near Zero: New Frontiers of Physics (New York: W.H. Freeman, 1988) 587
  • Dennis Sciama, The Unity of the Universe (London: Faber & Faber, 1959)
  • Kip Thorne, Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy (W.W. Norton, 1995)

Intermediate Books

  • Julian Barbour and Herbert Pfister (eds), Mach's Principle: From Newton's Bucket to Quantum Gravity (Boston: Birkhauser, 1995)
  • Ignazio Ciufolini and John Archibald Wheeler, Gravitation and Inertia (Princeton University Press, 1995)
  • Kip Thorne, "Gravitomagnetism, Jets in Quasars, and the Stanford Gyroscope Experiment," in J.D. Fairbank et al. (eds), Near Zero: New Frontiers of Physics (New York: W.H. Freeman, 1988) 573

Advanced Book

  • Remo Ruffini, Costantino Sigismondi (Eds), Nonlinear Gravitodynamics—The Lense-Thirring Effect. (New Jersey, World Scientific Publishing Co., 2003)

Advanced Scientific Journal Articles on Alternative Theories of Gravity

  • Carl Brans and Robert Dicke, "Mach's Principle and a Relativistic Theory of Gravitation," Physical Review 124 (1961) 925
  • Kenji Hayashi and Takeshi Shirafuji, "New General Relativity," Physical Review D19 (1979) 3524
  • Leopold Halpern, "A Geometrical Theory of Spin Motion," International Journal of Theoretical Physics 23 (1984) 843
  • Dimitri Kalligas et al., "The Classical Tests in Kaluza-Klein Gravity," Astrophysical Journal 439 (1995) 548
  • Hongya Liu and James Overduin, "Solar System Tests of Higher-Dimensional Gravity," Astrophysical Journal 538 (2000) 386;
  • Kamal Nandi et al., "Brans-Dicke Corrections to the Gravitational Sagnac Effect," Physical Review D63 (2001) 084027;
  • Quentin Bailey and Alan Kostelecky, "Signals for Lorentz Violation in Post-Newtonian Gravity," Physical Review D74 (2006) 045001;
  • Yi Mao et al., "Constraining Torsion with Gravity Probe B," Physical Review D76 (2007) 104029;

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